Power Grid Integration--Towards a World Powered by Renewables


Electricity generation from some renewable technologies, in particular wind power and solar photovoltaics, has a well-known variable nature. As the share of renewables on power grids increases, this variable nature becomes one of the main technical challenges for electric utilities, which must balance large shares of variable renewables, in order to maintain overall grid balance and stability according to technical and regulatory tolerances. This issue has been one of the main perceived stumbling blocks to high shares of renewables, but a growing body of real-world experience and engineering analysis shows that this "balancing issue" is amenable to many practical and already-available solutions.

For more on this topic, see Chapter 2 of the Renewables Global Futures Report. Note that the historical terms "intermittent" and "intermittency" have by and large been deprecated in favor of "variability" and "variable" as more accurately reflecting the nature of renewable energy, especially in view of sophisticated day-ahead weather forecasting models that are starting to be employed by power grid operators.

This page links to selected recent publications that explore the challenges and options to integrate and balance high shares of renewables on utility power grids.

Studies by Eric Martinot - Authored and Co-authored
Comprehensive References
Demand Response
Energy Storage
Smart Grids, Distributed Generation, and Electric Vehicles
Flexible Conventional Generation




Studies by Eric Martinot - Authored and Co-authored

In 2014-2015, Eric Martinot authored and co-authored a number of studies dedicated to grid integration of variable renewables.

In 2015, he notably co-authored Beyond 33% Renewables: Grid Integration Policy for a Low-Carbon Future, a California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Staff White Paper. This paper provides discussion material that will enable the CPUC to create an action plan for grid integration.
He also took part in the Clean Energy Ministerial 21st Century Power Partnership's reports: Status Report on Power System Transformation and Power Systems of the Future.
In addition, he co-authored Distribution System Planning and Innovation for Distributed Energy Futures.

Based on research led in 2014, he also wrote three 5-page educational articles focusing on the Power Grid Integration and Balancing of Renewables in Germany, California, and Denmark. The articles are written for a non-technical audience, so that anyone can understand the main ideas:
How is Germany Integrating and Balancing Renewable Energy Today?
How is California Integrating and Balancing Renewable Energy Today?
How is Denmark Integrating and Balancing Renewable Energy Today?




Comprehensive References

This section links publications that provide an overall understanding of the challenges raised by the integration of large shares of renewables. The following sections highlight solutions to these challenges.

Among the organizations providing interesting resources for the integration of variable renewable energy technologies, the International Energy Agency leads the "GIVAR" (Grid Integration of Variable Renewables) project. This project aims to build understanding of the characteristics of power systems and markets that enable the reliable economic integration of large shares of variable renewables. In this framework, the IEA released two reports: Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems (2008), and Harnessing Variable Renewables: A Guide to the Balancing Challenge (2011).

In 2014, the IEA GIVAR project completed its Third Phase, and the result was a new publication: The Power of Transformation -- Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014), 238 pp. This provides a deeper technical analysis, notably putting additional emphasis on solar photovoltaic, and includes an economic assessment of different flexibility options.

The IEA-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment is also advancing researchs in this field, but from a more regulatory perspective. In the scope of its project, the organisation, after publishing RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments in 2013, released another report on RE-INTEGRATION in 2015.

In addition, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides a number of excellent studies focusing on the grid integration of renewables at both the transmission and distribution levels, some of which are referenced below.

Other good references include:

The Age of Renewable Power: Designing National Roadmaps for a Successful Transformation, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 72 pp.

Renewable Energy Integration in Power Grids, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 36 pp.

From Baseload to Peak: Renewables Provide a Reliable Solution, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 16 pp.

The European Power System in 2030: Flexibility Challenges and Integration Benefits, Fraunhofer-Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (Berlin: prepared for Agora Energiewende, 2015), 88 pp.

The Danish Experience with Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Lessons Learned and Options for Improvement, Ea Energy Analyses (Copenhagen: prepared for Agora Energiewende, 2015), 64 pp.

Status Report on Power System Transformation, Mackay Miller, Sadie Cox, Bethany Speer, Owen Zinaman, Sam Booth, and Jaquelin Cochran (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Eric Martinot (Beijing Institute of Technology)/Romain Zissler (Japan Renewable Energy Foundation)/S.K. Soonee (Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd, India)/Pierre Audinet (World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program)/Luis Munuera (International Energy Agency)/Doug Arent (Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis) (Golden, CO: prepared for the Clean Energy Ministerial 21st Century Power Partnership, 2015), 109 pp.

Power Systems of the Future, Owen Zinaman, Mackay Miller, Ali Adil, Douglas Arent, Jaquelin Cochran, and Ravi Vora (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Sonia Aggarwal (Energy Innovation: Policy and Technology LLC)/Minnesh Bipath (South Africa National Energy Development Institute)/Carl Linvill (Regulatory Assistance Project)/Ari David (Columbia University Business School)/Richard Kauffman (Office of the Governor, New York)/Matt Futch (National Grid)/Efrain Villanueva Arcos and Jose Maria Valenzuela (Secretaria de Energia (SENER), Mexico)/Eric Martinot (Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies)/Morgan Bazilian (Columbia University, Sustainable Engineering Lab)/Reji Kumar Pillai (India Smart Grid Forum) (Golden, CO: prepared for the Clean Energy Ministerial 21st Century Power Partnership, 2015), 53 pp.

Bringing Variable Renewable Energy up to Scale: Options for Grid Integration Using Natural Gas and Energy Storage., Silvia Romero Martinez and Wendy Hughes (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015), 96 pp.

Wind Energy 2050: On the shape of near 100% Renewable Energy Grid, World Wind Energy Association (Bonn, Germany: WWEA, 2015), 84 pp.

REthinking Energy: Towards a New Power system, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2014), 96 pp.

Linking Heat and Electricity Systems, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2014), 62 pp.

Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation, E. Ela, M. Milligan, A.Bloom, and A. Townsend (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/A. Botterud and T. Levin (Argonne National Laboratory) (Golden, CO: NREL, 2014), 139 pp.

Renewable Energy Integration: Practical Management of Variability, Uncertainty, and Flexibility in Power Grids 1st Edition, Lawrence E. Jones (London; Waltham; San Diego.: Academic Press, Elsevier, 2014), 474 pp.

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions, L. Bird, M. Milligan, and D. Lew (Golden, CO: NREL, 2013), 14 pp.

Operating and Planning Electricity Grids with Variable Renewable Generation: Review of Emerging Lessons from Selected Operational Experiences and Desktop Studies, Marcelino Madrigal and Kevin Porter (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013), 122 pp. (Report for sale to individuals via Amazon)

Control Power and Variable Renewables A Glimpse at German Data, Lion Hirth and Inka Ziegenhagen (Milan, Italy: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 2013), 32 pp.

Effectiveness of Policies and Strategies to Increase the Capacity Utilisation of Intermittent Renewable Power Plants, David Benatia, Nick Johnstone, Ivan Hascic (OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 57, 2013), 50 pp.

System LCOE: What are the Costs of Variable Renewables?, Falko Ueckerdt, Lion Hirth, Gunnar Luderer, and Ottmar Edenhofer (Potsdam, Germany: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 2013), 33 pp.

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California, Andrew Mills and Ryan Wiser (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2012), 114 pp.

The Market Value of Variable Renewables: The Effect of Solar Wind power Variability on their Relative Price, Lion Hirth (San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy: EUI, 2013), 44 pp.

PV Parity Project "Final Report" and Other Reports, PV Parity Project (Brussels, 2013), 28 pp.

Renewable Electricity Futures Study, volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO: NREL, 2012), 280 pp.

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Jaquelin Cochran, Lori Bird, Jenny Heeter, and Douglas J. Arent (Golden, CO: NREL, 2012), 126 pp.

Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration, M. Milligan (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/H. Holtinnen (VTT, Finland)/L. Soder (KTH, Sweden)/C. Clark (U.S. Department of Energy)/I. Pineda (European Wind Energy Association) (Golden, CO: NREL, 2012), 9 pp.

Securing Power during the Transition: Generation Investment and Operation Issues in Electricity Markets with Low-Carbon Policies, Manuel Baritaud (Paris: IEA, 2012), 96 pp.

IEA Journal:Issue 2 - Renewable Energy Coming of Age, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2012), 42 pp.

Meeting Renewable Energy Targets in the West at Least Cost: The Integration Challenge, Western Governors' Association (Denver, CO: WGA, 2012), 144 pp.

Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation Special Report - Chapter 8: Integration of Renewable Energy into Present and Future Energy Systems, Section 8.2: Integration of renewable energy into supply systems, Sub-section 8.2.1: Integration of renewable energy into electrical power systems, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge/New York, NY: IPCC, 2011), 1075 pp.

Operating Reserves and Variable Generation: A comprehensive review of current strategies, studies, and fundamental research on the impact that increased penetration of variable renewable generation has on power system operating reserves, Erik Ela, Michael Milligan, and Brendan Kirby (Golden, CO: NREL, 2011), 103 pp.

Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era, Amory B. Lovins and Rocky Mountain Institute (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2011), 352 pp.

Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO: NREL, 2011), 241 pp.

Generic Models and Model Validation for Wind and Solar PV Generation: Technical Update, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2011), 66 pp.

Impacts of Wind Generation Integration, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, California: EPRI, 2011), 8 pp.

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phases 1-3: Phase 1, GE Energy (Golden, CO: prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2010), 536 pp. Phase 2, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO: NREL, 2013), 244 pp. And Phase 3, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO: NREL, 2014), 227 pp.

Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison, Michael Milligan, Pearl Donohoo, Debra Lew, Erik Ela, and Brendan Kirby (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Hannele Holttinen (VTT Finland)/Eamonn Lannoye, Damian Flynn, and Mark O'Malley (University College, Dublin)/Nicholas Miller (GE Energy)/Peter Borre Eriksen and Allan Gottig (Denmark)/Barry Rawn and Madeleine Gibescu (Netherlands)/Emilio Gomez Lazaro (Spain)/Andre Robitaille and Innocent Kamwa (Hydro Quebec) (Golden, CO: NREL, 2010), 16 pp.

Special Report: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (Princeton, NJ: NERC, 2009), 104 pp.




Demand Response

Demand response covers a wide range of actions by power utilities and their customers to reduce power demand at specific times. It includes contracted load curtailment that is controllable by the utility within pre-established parameters, and can also include time-of-use-based market prices to influence consumption decisions. Demand response can contribute to peak shaving, contingency reserves, and regulatory reserves. Many experts considered demand-response to be one of the primary and most cost-effective mechanisms in the future to manage the variability of high shares of renewables on power grids.

Mapping Demand Response in Europe Today 2015, Smart Energy Demand Coalition (Brussels: SEDC, 2015), 189 pp.

Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Demand Response, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 12 pp.

Designing Fair and Equitable Market Rules for Demand Response Aggregation, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 24 pp.

The Economics of Demand Flexibility: How "Flexiwatts" Create Quantifiable Value for Customers and the Grid, Peter Bronski, Mark Dyson, Matt Lehrman, Jamie Mandel, Jesse Morris, Titiian Palazzi, Samuel Ramirez, and Herve Touati (Boulder, CO: RMI, 2015), 79 pp.

Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Washington, DC: FERC, 2015), 36 pp.

Demand Response Program Design and Implementation Case Study Interviews, Dan Delurey and Lisa Schwartz (Berkeley, CA: prepared for the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2013).

DR 2.0 A Future of Customer Response, Paul De Martini (Newport Consulting Group) (San Francisco, CA: prepared for the Association for Demand Response and Smart Grid, 2013), 56 pp.

Fast Automated Demand Response to Enable the Integration of Renewable Resources, David S. Watson, Nance E. Matson, Janie Page, Sila Kiliccote, Mary Ann Piette, Karin Corfee, Betty Seto, Ralph Masiello, John Masiello, Lorin Molander, Samuel Golding, Kevin Sullivan, Walt Johnson, and David Hawkins (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2012), 50 pp.

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices, Bo Shen, Girish Ghatikar, Chun Chun Ni, Junqiao Dudley, Phil Martin, and Greg Wikler (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2012), 43 pp.

Potential Role of Demand Response Resources in Maintaining Grid Stability and Integrating Variable Renewable Energy under California's 33 Percent Renewable Portfolio Standard, Bruce Perlstein, Lindsay Battenberg, Erik Gilbert, Robin Maslowski, Frank Stern, Stuart Schare, Karin Corfee, and Ryan Firestone (San Francisco, CA: Navigant Consulting, 2012), 198 pp.

Empowering Customer Choice in Electricity Markets, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2011), 64 pp.

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study, Peter Cappers, Andrew Mills, Charles Goldman, Ryan Wiser, and Joseph H. Eto (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2011), 76 pp.

Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation, Joseph H. Eto, John Undrill, Peter Mackin, Ron Daschmans, Ben Williams, Brian Haney, Randall Hunt, Jeff Ellis, Howard Illian, Carlos Martinez, Mark O'Malley, Katie Coughlin, and Kristina Hamachi LaCommare (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2010), 141 pp.

Integrating Renewable Resources in California and the Role of Automated Demand Response, Sila Kiliccote, Pamela Sporborg, Imran Sheikh, Erich Huffaker, and Mary Ann Piette (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2010), 41 pp.

A.J. Roscoe and G. Ault. 2010. "Supporting high penetrations of renewable generation via implementation of real-time electricity pricing and demand response." IET Renewable Power Generation 4(4): 369-382.

Jacopo Torriti, Mohamed G. Hassan, and Matthew Leach. 2010. "Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation." Energy 35(4): 1575-1583.

The "Case Studies" database of the curtailment service provider EnerNOC provides about 70 various examples of demand response program implementations.




Energy Storage

Hydropower has been a traditional form of large-scale energy storage on power grids, in the form of both conventional and pumped hydro. In recent years, grid-tied battery storage has made inroads and shows much promise for the future. Beyond hydro and batteries, solar thermal power (CSP) plants also offer storage capabilities using embedded thermal storage. From a grid stability perspective, different storage technologies are suited for different balancing time frames, ranging from minutes to hours, and even to days or weeks.

Renewables and Electricity Storage, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 56 pp.

Battery Storage for Renewables: Market Status and Technology Outlook, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 60 pp.

Technology Roadmap: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2015), 80 pp.

Hydropower: Supporting a Power System in Transition, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 24 pp.

The Economics of Battery Energy Storage: How Multi-use, Customer-sited Batters Deliver the Most Services and Value to Customers and the Grid, Rocky Mountain Institute (Boulder, CO: RMI, 2015), 41 pp.

The Economics of Load Defection: How Grid-Connected Solar-Plus-Battery Systems Will Compete with Traditional Electric Service, Why it Matters, and Possible Paths Forward, Peter Bronski, Jon Creyts, Stephen Doig, Leia Guccione, Jamie Mandel, Bodhi Rader, Herve Touati, and Daniel Seif (Boulder, CO: RMI, 2015), 71 pp.

What if... there were a nationwide rollout of PV battery systems?, Agora Energiewende (Berlin: Agora Energiewende, 2015), 12 pp.

Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2014), 64 pp.

Technology Roadmap: Solar Thermal Electricity, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2014), 52 pp.

The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications, Paul Denholm, Jennie Jorgenson, Marissa Hummon, Thomas Jenkin, and David Palchak (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Brendan Kirby (Consultant)/Ookie Ma (U.S. Department of Energy)/Mark O'Malley (University College Dublin) (Golden, CO: NREL, 2013), 45 pp.

Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Storage in California: Application of the EPRI Energy Storage Valuation Tool to Inform the California Public Utility Commission Proceeding R. 10-12-007, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2013), 128 pp.

Renewable Electricity Futures Study, volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies - Chapter 12: Energy Storage Technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO: NREL, 2012), 370 pp.

Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power: A Guide for Decision Makers, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2012), 44 pp.

Energy Storage in Australia: Commercial Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Options, Marchment Hill Consulting (Australia-Hong Kong: prepared for the Clean Energy Council, 2012), 67 pp.

Ramteen Sioshansi, Paul Denholm, and Thomas Jenkin. 2012. "Market and Policy Barriers to Deployment of Energy Storage." Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy 1(2): 47-6.

Technology Roadmap: Hydropower, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2012), 68 pp.

Hydro in Europe: Powering Renewables, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2011), 66 pp.

The Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation, Paul Denholm, Erik Ela, Brendan Kirby, and Michael Milligan (Golden, CO: NREL, 2010), 53 pp.

Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2010), 170 pp.

Standard Language Protocols for Photovoltaic and Storage Grid Integration, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2010), 12 pp.

Marc Beaudin, Hamidreza Zareipour, Anthony Schellenberglabe, and William Rosehart. 2010. "Energy storage for mitigating the variability of renewable electricity sources: An updated review." Energy for Sustainable Development 14(4): 302-314.

Energy Storage: A New Approach, Ralph Zito (Salem, MA: Wiley-Scrivener, 2010), 303 pp.

Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, Andreas Poullikkas, and Venizelos Efthimiou. 2009. "Overview of current and future energy storage technologies for electricpower applications." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(6-7): 1513-1522.

H. Ibrahim, A. Ilincaa, and J. Perron. 2008. "Energy storage systems-Characteristics and comparisons." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(5): 1221-1250.

Energy Storage: A Nontechnical Guide, Richard Baxter (Tulsa, OK: PennWell Corporation, 2006), 302 pp.




Smart Grids, Distributed Generation, and Electric Vehicles

Smart grids refers to a wide variety of innovations for future power grids. Smart grids enable local energy consumption management, integration and balancing of distributed and variable renewable sources, grid balancing with energy storage, electric vehicle-to-grid and vehicle-to-home applications, and optimized control of renewable-linked heat supply and combined heat and power systems.

Technology Roadmap How2Guide for Smart Grids in Distribution Networks, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2015), 60 pp.

Martinot E., Kristov L., Erickson J.D. Hennicke P. 2015. "Distribution System Planning and Innovation for Distributed Energy Futures." Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 2(2):47-54

Smart Grids and Renewables: A Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide for Developing Countries, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2015), 44 pp.

CEER Public Consultation "The Future Role of DSOs", Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 18 pp.

Smart Charging: Steering the Charge, Driving the Change, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 57 pp.

The Role of Smart Grids in Integrating Renewable Energy, Bethany Speer and Mackay Miller (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Walter Schaffer (Salzburg Netz GmbH)/Leyla Gueran and Albrecht Reuter (Fichtner IT Consulting AG)/Bonnie Jang (Korea Smart Grid Institute)/Karin Widegren (Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate) (Golden, CO: prepared for the International Smart Grid Action Network, 2015), 18 pp.

Regulatory Tools & Processes for Distribution Planning, Rocky Mountain Institute (Boulder, CO: RMI, 2014), 16 pp.

DSO Declaration Power Distribution: Contributing to the European Energy Transition, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2014), 4 pp.

Smart Grids and Renewables: A Guide for Effective Deployment, International Renewable Energy Agency (Abu Dhabi: IRENA, 2013), 47 pp.

Active Distribution System Management: A key tool for the smooth integration of distributed generation, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2013), 53 pp.

Communicating Smart Meters to Customers EWhich Role for DSOs?, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2013), 35 pp.

Deploying Publicly Accessible Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles: How to Organise the Market?, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2013), 23 pp.

An Integrated Assessment of Super & Smart Grids, Elena Claire Ricci (Milan, Italy: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 2013), 27 pp.

Global EV Outlook, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2013), 44 pp.

Smart Grid projects in Europe: Lessons learned and current developments, Vincenzo Giordano, Flavia Gangale, Gianluca Fulli, and Manuel Sanchez Jimenez (Luxembourg: Joint Research Centre European Commission-Institute for Energy, 2011), 118 pp.

Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2011), 44 pp.

Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policy Needs, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2011), 24 pp.

Technology Roadmap: Smart Grids, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2011), 52 pp.

Technology Roadmap: Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2011), 52 pp.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Smart Grids from innovation to deployment, European Commission (Brussels: EC, 2011), 13 pp.

Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System, Math H. Bollen and Fainan Hassan (IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering, 2011), 524 pp.

Modelling Load Shifing Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment, International Energy Agency (Paris: IEA, 2010), 76 pp.

Distributed Energy Resources and Management of Future Distribution, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2010), 142 pp.

Concepts to Enable Advancement of Distributed Energy Resources, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2010), 24 pp.

Ramteen Sioshansi and Paul Denholm. 2010. "The value of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as grid resources." The Energy Journal 31(3): 1-23.




Flexible Conventional Generation

Peaking and non-peaking gas turbines, as well as other conventional plants, from coal to nuclear, offer possibilities to balance variability of renewables by ramping and cycling.

Program on Technology Innovation: Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration, Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, CA: EPRI, 2015), 200 pp.

Making Coal Flexible: Getting From Baseload to Peaking Plant, Jaquelin Cochran (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/Debra Lew (Independent Consultant)/Nikhil Kumar (Director of Energy & Utility Analytics, Intertek) (Golden, CO: prepared for the Clean Energy Ministerial 21st Century Power Partnership, 2015), 5 pp.

Thermal Power Plants - A Vital Asset in a New Energy World, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2015), 11 pp.

Flexible Gas Markets for Variable Renewable Generation, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2014), 23 pp.

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, D. Lew, G. Brinkman, E. Ibanez, A. Florita, M. Heaney, B.-M. Hodge, M. Hummon, and G. Stark (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/J. King (RePPAE)/S.A. Lefton, N. Kumar, and D. Agan (Intertek-APTECH)/G. Jordan and S. Venkataraman (GE Energy) (Golden, CO: NREL, 2013), 244 pp.

M.L. Kubik, P.J. Coker, and C. Hunt. 2012. "The role of conventional generation in managing variability." Energy Policy 50: 253-261.

Flexible Generation: Backing up Renewables, Union of the Electricity Industry (Brussels: EURELECTRIC, 2011), 48 pp.

Technical and Economic Aspects of Load Following with Nuclear Power Plants, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency (Paris: OECD-NEA, 2011), 51 pp.



Page updated February 15, 2016